Modernity in itself means the 'new'. This style has shown new ways the world evolves and how art has moved with it too.
In the 18th century, the human race became rapidly scientific and philosophical about the way of life and thinking. Many inventors, architects and scientists became leaders in industry as they determined what was 'the new'. Society would inevitably follow their lead. But this left the artists with a possibility to record all these events, in which ever way they saw fit. Artists saw this opportunity to respond to the lifestyle of discovery and technology - especially as social values and norms were rapidly chaging too.
Modernism was the artist's response to the change in lifestyle and psychological effect of modernity on the public. Design benefited from the new ideals and desire for creativity, there was a demand. New technology also meant that there were opporunities for bigger, better, more daring design. Boundaries needed to be pushed.
'Form follows function' is the basis on which modernism stands on. This belief allowed new and exciting design to emerge as it was seen to be essential.
The Bauhaus movement are probably the leaders in this area. Based in Germany, this experimentation of the new ideas concerning design made it one of the best names of all time. Everyday items had to use 'form follows function', including typefaces and furniture, even buildings.
Because of the simple way their work was executed, it made it very easy for mass reproduction. This in turn was realised as a perfect opportunity to expand the idea to everybody.